Tuesday, January 11, 2011

History Of Fashion

Couture Beginnings
The first designer of fashion was Charles Frederick Worth in the year 1826-1895. In this period,many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for the clothing. The tradition of designer sketching out the clothing designs instead of presenting completed clothing on models to customers began as an economy.

Early twentieth century
Around 20th century,fashion style magazines began to include photographs and became influential than in the future. The talented illustrators were Paul Iribe, Georges Lepape, Erte, and George Barbier. They drew exquisite fashion plates for these publications. The most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du bon ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Voges and regularly published until 1925.

The outfits worn by the fashionable women of the Belle Epoque,as this era was called by the French, were strikingly similar to those worn in the heyday of the fashion pioneer Charles Worth. The curvaceous S-Bend silhouette dominated fashion up until around 1908. The S~Bend corset was very tightly laced at the waist which forced the hips back and the drooping mono bosom was thrust forward in a pouter pigeon effect creating an S shape. Then, it become more straight and slim, partly due to Paul Poiret's high-waisted, shorter-skirted Directoire line of clothes.
Another indispensable part of the outfit of the well-dressed woman was the designer hat. Fashionable hats at the time were either tiny little confections that perched on top of the head, or large and wide brimmed, trimmed with ribbons, flowers, and even feathers. The most sought-after names of the time were Caroline Reboux, Legroux and E. Lewis.

Early years of 1910s the fashionable silhouette became much more lithe, fluid and soft than in the 20th century. Poiret's clients were at once transformed into harem girls in flowing pantaloons, turbans, and vivid colors and geishas in exotic kimono. Simple felt hats, turbans, and clouds of tulle replaced the styles of headgear popular in the 20th century. Jacaques Doucet and Mariano Fortuny were the most influential fashion designers of the time. By 1915 fashionable skirts had risen above the ankle and then later to mid-calf.

Between the Wars
The great couturier Coco Chanel was a major figure in fashion at the time. Chanel helped popularize the bob hairstyle, the little black dress, and the use of jersey knit for women's clothing and also elevated the status of both costume jewelry and knitwear. French designers of the 1920s were Jeanne Lanvin and Jean Patou. The style of Jean Patou was never mainstream, but full of originality and characterized. Fair Isle patterns became very popular for both sexes. Heels, at the time, were often over two inches high and helped popularize the two-tone shoe its one of her trademarks.

Mid-twentieth century
In spite of the fact that so many fashion houses closed down or moved away during the war, several new houses remained open, including Jacques Fath, Maggy Rouff, Marcel Rochas, Jeanne Lafaurie, Nina Ricci, and Madeleine Vramant. During the Occupation, the only true way for a woman to flaunt her extravagance and add color to a drab outfit was to wear a hat. In this period, hats were often made of scraps of material that would have otherwise been thrown away, sometimes incorporating bits of paper, and wood shavings. Among the most innovative milliners of the time were Pauline Adam, Simone Naudet, Rose Valois, and Le Monnier.  During the Second World War, Vera Maxwell presented co-ordinates in plain, simply cut outfits and also introduced innovations to men's work clothes. Bonnie Cashin transformed boots into a major fashion accessory. The couturier Christian Dior created a tidal wave with his first collection in February 1947. The collection contained dresses with tiny waists, majestic busts, and full skirts swelling out beneath small bodices, in a manner very similar to the style of the Belle Epoque.

The two most innovative fashion designers in 1970s France were Kenzo Takada and Sonia Rykiel. Sonia Rykiel designed her first pullovers with reversed seams. She created a whole range of clothes that were extremely individual and yet could be worn almost anywhere. The Rykiel style, dominated by fluid knitted garments, dark blacks, rhinestones, long boa-like scarves, and little crocheted hats, conquered the American market, and even to this day Rykiel is considered by many Americans as the true successor of Chanel. Punk influence also one of the type of fashion. With their ripped t-shirt, Red Indian hairstyles, Doc Martens, bondage trousers, and chains, the punks exported an overall feeling of disgust around the globe.

Late twentieth century
Fashion shows were transfigured into media-saturated spectaculars and frequently televised, taking high priority in the social calendar. The two French fashion designers who best defined the look of the period were Thierry Mugler and Azzedine Alaia. Thierry Mugler produced fashion designs that combined Hollywood retro and futurism, with rounded hips, sharply accentuated shoulders, and a slight hint of the galactic heroine. Japanese designers such as Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto prevailing fashion such as  flat shoes, no make-up, reserve, modesty, and secrecy were the hallmarks of this modern look. In American fashion the seductive, clinging style of Donna Karan and the casual sophistication of Ralph Lauren are the most  influential. Success of a new wave of American sportswear was the Perry Ellis label, established in 1978. The extreme popularity of the Adidas sports label, which achieved an incredible level of street cred in the '80s, inciting the hip hop group RUN DMC to release the single 'My Adidas' in 1986.


In the '90s the designer label  Prada became a true creative force in the fashion industry. The Milanese company was first established in 1923, two years after Gucci, and like Gucci, it was a firm that sold high-quality shoes and leather. In America three of the most influential fashion designers of the time were Michael Kors, Marc Jacobs and Calvin Klein. Michael Kors set up his own business in 1980. However, it was not until the Nineties that the designer reached the peak of his popularity. His knowledge and consciousness of trends enabled him to produce simple well-cut garments, whose sophistication and elegance appealed to a whole new breed of wealthy American customers drawn to the new vogue for minimalist chic. Marc Jacobs is one of the most notable American designers of the period in that, unlike many American fashion designers in the past, he was not so much the co-ordinator of a mass-produced garment as a designer in the European sense of the word. One of the most promising talents in the fashion industry at the time, the LVMH (Louis Vuitton-Moet Henessy) group offered him the job of designing a line of ready-to-wear to compliment the de-luxe products of luggage specialist Louis Vuitton in the late 90s. In Italy, Gianni Versace with his brilliant, sexy, and colorful designs, and Dolce and Gabbana with their superfeminine and fantastical style. Rap music was a prominent influence on popular and street fashion during the early- and mid-Nineties. Followers of hip hop adopted huge baggy jeans, similar to those worn in American prisons, with big patterned shirts and heavy black shoes.

Vintage clothing, especially from the Sixties, Seventies, and Eighties became extremely popular and fashion in this era. Tighter fit clothing and longer hair became mainstream for many men and women.

Refered from : wikipedia.org

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